Protective Role of Cerebrospinal Fluid Inflammatory Cytokines in Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Alzheimer's Disease Carrying Apolipoprotein E4 Genotype.
Motta C., Finardi A., Toniolo S., Di Lorenzo F., Scaricamazza E., Loizzo S., Mercuri NB., Furlan R., Koch G., Martorana A.
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammatory cytokines can play a pivotal role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) contributing to the evolution of degenerative processes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at evaluating the levels of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in subjects with diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment and mild AD. METHODS: We evaluated CSF contents of inflammatory cytokines in 66 patients divided according to the NIA-AA research framework and the APOE genotype. CSF of a group of cognitively unimpaired individuals (n = 23) was evaluated as control. All patients were evaluated for 24 months using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). RESULTS: We found significant increased levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and G-CSF in the CSF of A+/T-APOE4 carriers, respect to A+/T-patients homozygous for APOE3, respect to A+/T+ patients, regardless the APOE status, and respect to controls. Over a period of 24 months, A+/T-APOE4 carriers, with increased levels of cytokines, showed a preserved cognitive evaluation when compared to the other subgroups of patients (delta MMSE at 24 months respect to baseline: 0.10±0.35; p