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Improved obstetric and neonatal care have reduced the prevalence of severe hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy (HIE), however 1-3/1000 newborns in the developed world(1) suffer death or neurodevelopmental disability from HIE. The normal development of the brain during gestation can also be altered by placental reprogramming under oxidative stress. Under these conditions, the placenta releases DNA damaging molecules, bone morphogenic proteins, microRNAs, and glutamate(2). At present, one is unable to diagnose or treat these factors.

Original publication




Journal article


Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992)

Publication Date



hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy, placental reprogramming, neurodevelopment, brain injury, cooling, Xenon