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Working memory deficits are present in many neuropsychiatric diseases with diagnosis-related severity. However, it is unknown whether this common behavioral abnormality is a continuum explained by a neural mechanism shared across diseases or a set of discrete dysfunctions. Here, we performed predictive modeling to examine working memory ability (WMA) as a function of normative whole-brain connectivity across psychiatric diseases. We built a quantitative model for letter three-back task performance in healthy participants, using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). This normative model was applied to independent participants (N = 965) including four psychiatric diagnoses. Individual's predicted WMA significantly correlated with a measured WMA in both healthy population and schizophrenia. Our predicted effect size estimates on WMA impairment were comparable to previous meta-analysis results. These results suggest a general association between brain connectivity and working memory ability applicable commonly to health and psychiatric diseases.

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biomarkers, functional connectivity, human, neuroscience, prediction model, rs-fMRI, working memory, Brain, Brain Mapping, Female, Humans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Male, Memory Disorders, Memory, Short-Term, Mental Disorders, Models, Neurological, Nerve Net, Neuropsychological Tests, Prognosis, Psychomotor Performance, Young Adult