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Our ability to have an experience of another's pain is characteristic of empathy. Using functional imaging, we assessed brain activity while volunteers experienced a painful stimulus and compared it to that elicited when they observed a signal indicating that their loved one--present in the same room--was receiving a similar pain stimulus. Bilateral anterior insula (AI), rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), brainstem, and cerebellum were activated when subjects received pain and also by a signal that a loved one experienced pain. AI and ACC activation correlated with individual empathy scores. Activity in the posterior insula/secondary somatosensory cortex, the sensorimotor cortex (SI/MI), and the caudal ACC was specific to receiving pain. Thus, a neural response in AI and rostral ACC, activated in common for "self" and "other" conditions, suggests that the neural substrate for empathic experience does not involve the entire "pain matrix." We conclude that only that part of the pain network associated with its affective qualities, but not its sensory qualities, mediates empathy.

Original publication




Journal article


Science (New York, N.Y.)

Publication Date





1157 - 1162


Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College of London, 12 Queen Square, WC1N 3AR London, UK.


Brain, Brain Stem, Cerebellum, Gyrus Cinguli, Mediodorsal Thalamic Nucleus, Cerebral Cortex, Motor Cortex, Prefrontal Cortex, Somatosensory Cortex, Humans, Pain, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Brain Mapping, Electroshock, Empathy, Cues, Adult, Female, Male