Impact of multimorbidity on risk and outcome of stroke: Lessons from chronic kidney disease.
Kelly DM., Rothwell PM.
With both an aging population and greater post-stroke survival, multimorbidity is a growing healthcare challenge, affecting over 40% of stroke patients, and rising rapidly and predictably with increasing age. Commonly defined as the co-occurrence of two or more chronic conditions, multimorbidity burden is a strong adverse prognostic factor, associated with greater short- and long-term stroke mortality, worse rehabilitation outcomes, and reduced use of secondary prevention. Chronic kidney disease can be considered as the archetypal comorbidity, being age-dependent and also affecting about 40% of stroke patients. Chronic kidney disease and stroke share very similar traditional cardiovascular risk factor profiles such as hypertension and diabetes, though novel chronic kidney disease-specific risk factors such as inflammation and oxidative stress have also been proposed. Using chronic kidney disease as an exemplar condition, we explore the mechanisms of risk in multimorbidity, implications for management, impact on stroke severity, and downstream consequences such as post-stroke cognitive impairment and dementia.