Association of Gray Matter Atrophy Patterns with Clinical Phenotype and Progression in Multiple Sclerosis.
Rocca MA., Valsasina P., Meani A., Gobbi C., Zecca C., Rovira A., Sastre-Garriga J., Kearney H., Ciccarelli O., Matthews L., Palace J., Gallo A., Bisecco A., Lukas C., Bellenberg B., Barkhof F., Vrenken H., Preziosa P., Filippi M., MAGNIMS Study Group None.
OBJECTIVES: Grey matter (GM) involvement is clinically relevant in multiple sclerosis (MS). Using source-based morphometry (SBM), we characterized GM atrophy and its 1-year evolution across different MS phenotypes. METHODS: Clinical and MRI data were obtained at 8 European sites from 170 healthy controls (HCs) and 398 MS patients (34 clinically isolated syndromes [CIS], 226 relapsing-remitting [RR], 95 secondary progressive [SP] and 43 primary progressive [PP] MS). Fifty-seven HC and 144 MS underwent 1-year follow-up. Baseline GM loss, atrophy progression and correlations with disability and 1-year clinical worsening were assessed. RESULTS: SBM identified 26 cerebellar, subcortical, sensory, motor and cognitive GM components. GM atrophy was found in MS vs HC in almost all components (p=range<0.001-0.04). Compared to HCs, CIS patients showed circumscribed subcortical, cerebellar, temporal and salience GM atrophy, while RRMS patients exhibited widespread GM atrophy. Cerebellar, subcortical, sensorimotor, salience and fronto-parietal GM atrophy was found in PPMS patients vs HCs, and SPMS vs RRMS. At 1-year, 21 (15%) patients had clinically worsened. GM atrophy progressed in MS in subcortical, cerebellar, sensorimotor, and fronto-temporo-parietal components. Baseline higher disability was associated (R2=0.65) with baseline lower normalized brain volume (beta=-0.13, p=0.001), greater sensorimotor GM atrophy (beta=-0.12, p=0.002) and longer disease duration (beta=0.09, p=0.04). Baseline normalized GM volume (odds ratio=0.98, p=0.008) and cerebellar GM atrophy (odds ratio=0.40, p=0.01) independently predicted clinical worsening (area-under-the-curve=0.83). CONCLUSION: GM atrophy differed across disease phenotypes and progressed at 1-year in MS. In addition to global atrophy measures, sensorimotor and cerebellar GM atrophy explained baseline disability and clinical worsening.