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OBJECTIVES: Grey matter (GM) involvement is clinically relevant in multiple sclerosis (MS). Using source-based morphometry (SBM), we characterized GM atrophy and its 1-year evolution across different MS phenotypes. METHODS: Clinical and MRI data were obtained at 8 European sites from 170 healthy controls (HCs) and 398 MS patients (34 clinically isolated syndromes [CIS], 226 relapsing-remitting [RR], 95 secondary progressive [SP] and 43 primary progressive [PP] MS). Fifty-seven HC and 144 MS underwent 1-year follow-up. Baseline GM loss, atrophy progression and correlations with disability and 1-year clinical worsening were assessed. RESULTS: SBM identified 26 cerebellar, subcortical, sensory, motor and cognitive GM components. GM atrophy was found in MS vs HC in almost all components (p=range<0.001-0.04). Compared to HCs, CIS patients showed circumscribed subcortical, cerebellar, temporal and salience GM atrophy, while RRMS patients exhibited widespread GM atrophy. Cerebellar, subcortical, sensorimotor, salience and fronto-parietal GM atrophy was found in PPMS patients vs HCs, and SPMS vs RRMS. At 1-year, 21 (15%) patients had clinically worsened. GM atrophy progressed in MS in subcortical, cerebellar, sensorimotor, and fronto-temporo-parietal components. Baseline higher disability was associated (R2=0.65) with baseline lower normalized brain volume (beta=-0.13, p=0.001), greater sensorimotor GM atrophy (beta=-0.12, p=0.002) and longer disease duration (beta=0.09, p=0.04). Baseline normalized GM volume (odds ratio=0.98, p=0.008) and cerebellar GM atrophy (odds ratio=0.40, p=0.01) independently predicted clinical worsening (area-under-the-curve=0.83). CONCLUSION: GM atrophy differed across disease phenotypes and progressed at 1-year in MS. In addition to global atrophy measures, sensorimotor and cerebellar GM atrophy explained baseline disability and clinical worsening.

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