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Background Eculizumab, a terminal complement inhibitor, significantly reduced the risk of relapse compared with placebo in patients with anti-aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G-positive (AQP4+) neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) in the PREVENT trial. We report efficacy and safety analyses in Asian patients in PREVENT and its open-label extension (OLE). Methods PREVENT was a double-blind, randomized, phase 3 trial. Patients with AQP4+ NMOSD were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive intravenous eculizumab (maintenance dose, 1200 mg/2 weeks) or placebo. Patients who completed PREVENT could receive eculizumab in an OLE. Analyses were performed in a prespecified subgroup of Asian patients. Results Of 143 patients enrolled, 52 (36.4%) were included in the Asian subgroup (eculizumab, n = 37; placebo, n = 15); 45 Asian patients received eculizumab in the OLE. Most Asian patients (86.5%) received concomitant immunosuppressive therapy. During PREVENT, one adjudicated relapse occurred in patients receiving eculizumab and six occurred in patients receiving placebo in the Asian subgroup (hazard ratio, 0.05; 95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.35; p = 0.0002). An estimated 95.2% of Asian patients remained relapse-free after 144 weeks of eculizumab treatment. Upper respiratory tract infections, headache, and nasopharyngitis were the most common adverse events with eculizumab in the Asian subgroup. Conclusion Eculizumab reduces the risk of relapse in Asian patients with AQP4+ NMOSD, with a benefit-risk profile similar to the overall PREVENT population. The benefits of eculizumab were maintained during long-term therapy. Clinical trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT01892345 (PREVENT); NCT02003144 (open-label extension).

Original publication

DOI

10.1016/j.msard.2021.102849

Type

Journal article

Journal

Mult Scler Relat Disord

Publication Date

20/02/2021

Volume

50

Keywords

Anti-aquaporin-4-positive, Asian, Eculizumab, Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, Relapse, Safety