Machine Learning Quantitation of Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease: A Systematic Review of Clinical Applications
Boyd C., Brown G., Kleinig T., Dawson J., McDonnell MD., Jenkinson M., Bezak E.
<jats:p>Research into machine learning (ML) for clinical vascular analysis, such as those useful for stroke and coronary artery disease, varies greatly between imaging modalities and vascular regions. Limited accessibility to large diverse patient imaging datasets, as well as a lack of transparency in specific methods, are obstacles to further development. This paper reviews the current status of quantitative vascular ML, identifying advantages and disadvantages common to all imaging modalities. Literature from the past 8 years was systematically collected from MEDLINE® and Scopus database searches in January 2021. Papers satisfying all search criteria, including a minimum of 50 patients, were further analysed and extracted of relevant data, for a total of 47 publications. Current ML image segmentation, disease risk prediction, and pathology quantitation methods have shown sensitivities and specificities over 70%, compared to expert manual analysis or invasive quantitation. Despite this, inconsistencies in methodology and the reporting of results have prevented inter-model comparison, impeding the identification of approaches with the greatest potential. The clinical potential of this technology has been well demonstrated in Computed Tomography of coronary artery disease, but remains practically limited in other modalities and body regions, particularly due to a lack of routine invasive reference measurements and patient datasets.</jats:p>