Double stranded RNA drives innate immune responses, sickness behavior and cognitive impairment dependent on dsRNA length, IFNAR1 expression and age
McGarry N., Murray CL., Garvey S., Wilkinson A., Tortorelli L., Ryan L., Hayden L., Healy D., Griffin EW., Hennessy E., Arumugam M., Skelly DT., Mitchell KJ., Cunningham C.
AbstractDouble stranded RNA is generated during viral replication. The synthetic analogue poly I:C is frequently used to mimic anti-viral innate immune responses in models of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders including schizophrenia, autism, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Many studies perform limited analysis of innate immunity despite these responses potentially differing as a function of dsRNA molecular weight and age. Therefore fundamental questions relevant to impacts of systemic viral infection on brain function and integrity remain. Here, we studied innate immune-inducing properties of poly I:C preparations of different lengths and responses in adult and aged mice. High molecular weight (HMW) poly I:C (1-6kb, 12 mg/kg) produced more robust sickness behavior and more robust IL-6, IFN-I and TNFα responses than poly I:C of <500 bases (low MW) preparations. This was partly overcome with higher doses of LMW (up to 80 mg/kg), but neither circulating IFNβ nor brain transcription ofIrf7were significantly induced by LMW poly I:C, despite brainIfnbtranscription, suggesting that brain IFN-dependent gene expression is predominantly triggered by circulating IFNβ binding of IFNAR1. In aged animals, poly I:C induced exaggerated IL-6, IL-1β and IFN-I in the plasma and similar exaggerated brain cytokine responses. This was associated with acute working memory deficits selectively in aged mice. Thus, we demonstrate dsRNA length-, IFNAR1- and age-dependent effects on anti-viral inflammation and cognitive function. The data have implications for CNS symptoms of acute systemic viral infection such as those with SARS-CoV-2 and for models of maternal immune activation.