Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of patch angioplasty versus primary closure and different types of patch materials during carotid endarterectomy.
Bond R., Rerkasem K., Naylor AR., Aburahma AF., Rothwell PM.
BACKGROUND: Patch angioplasty during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) may reduce the risk for perioperative or late carotid artery recurrent stenosis and subsequent ischemic stroke. We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials to assess the effect of routine or selective carotid patch angioplasty compared with CEA with primary closure, and the effect of different materials used for carotid patch angioplasty. METHODS: Randomized trials were included if they compared carotid patch angioplasty with primary closure in any patients undergoing CEA or use of one type of carotid patch with another. RESULTS: Thirteen eligible randomized trials were identified. Seven trials involving 1281 operations compared primary closure with routine patch closure, and 8 trials with 1480 operations compared different patch materials (2 studies compared both). Patch angioplasty was associated with a reduction in risk for stroke of any type (P = .004), ipsilateral stroke (P = .001), and stroke or death during both the perioperative period (P = .007) and long-term follow-up (P = .004). Patching was also associated with reduced risk for perioperative arterial occlusion (P = .0001) and decreased recurrent stenosis during long-term follow-up (P < .0001). Seven trials that compared different patch types showed no difference in the risk for stroke, death, or arterial recurrent stenosis either perioperatively or at 1-year follow-up. One study of 180 patients (200 arteries) compared collagen-impregnated Dacron (Hemashield) patches with polytetrafluoroethylene patches. There was a significant increase in risk for stroke (P = .02), combined stroke and transient ischemic attack (P = .03), and recurrent stenosis (P = .01) at 30 days, and an increased risk for late recurrent stenosis greater than 50% (P < .001) associated with Dacron compared with polytetrafluoroethylene. CONCLUSIONS: Carotid patch angioplasty decreases the risk for perioperative death or stroke, and long-term risk for ipsilateral ischemic stroke. More data are required to establish differences between various patch materials.