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Background: Inclusion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) oligoclonal IgG bands (OCGB) in the revised McDonald criteria increases the sensitivity of diagnosis when dissemination in time (DIT) cannot be proven. While OCGB negative patients are unlikely to develop clinically definite (CD) MS, OCGB positivity may lead to an erroneous diagnosis in conditions that present similarly, such as neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) or neurosarcoidosis. Objective: To identify specific, OCGB-complementary, biomarkers to improve diagnostic accuracy in OCGB positive patients. Methods: We analysed the CSF metabolome and proteome of CDMS (n=41) and confirmed non-MS patients (n=64) comprising a range of CNS conditions routinely encountered in neurology clinics. Results: OCGB discriminated between CDMS and non-MS with high sensitivity (85%), but low specificity (67%), as previously described. Machine learning methods revealed CCN5 levels provide greater accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity than OCGB (79%, +5%; 90%, +5%; and 72%, +5% respectively) while glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) identified CDMS with 100% specificity (+33%). A multiomics approach improved accuracy further to 90% (+16%). Conclusion: The measurement of a few additional CSF biomarkers could be used to complement OCGB and improve the specificity of MS diagnosis when clinical and radiological evidence of DIT is absent.

Original publication




Journal article


Front Immunol

Publication Date





diagnosis, metabolomics (OMICS), multiple sclerosis (MS), oligoclonal band, proteomics