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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a rapidly rising global health burden that affects nearly 40% of older adults. Epidemiologic data suggest that individuals at all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a higher risk of developing cognitive disorders and dementia, and thus represent a vulnerable population. It is currently unknown to what extent this risk may be attributable to a clustering of traditional risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus leading to a high prevalence of both symptomatic and subclinical ischaemic cerebrovascular lesions, or whether other potential mechanisms, including direct neuronal injury by uraemic toxins or dialysis-specific factors could also be involved. These knowledge gaps may lead to suboptimal prevention and treatment strategies being implemented in this group. In this review, we explore the mechanisms of susceptibility and risk in the relationship between CKD and cognitive disorders.

Original publication




Journal article


Front Neurol

Publication Date





CKD, cognitive impairment, dementia, dialysis, hypertension, stroke