Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in the working age population in many countries. Despite the available treatments, some individuals present late in the course of the disease when treatment is more difficult. If diabetic retinopathy is detected early, tightening of the modifiable risk factors (e.g. blood glucose, blood pressure) can slow disease progression. When sight-threatening retinopathy is detected, laser treatment and treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors reduce the risk of visual loss. When a stage of advanced retinopathy is detected, vitrectomy operations with modern surgical techniques provide improving results for patients.