Magnetic Nanoparticles Applications for Amyloidosis Study and Detection: A Review.
Pansieri J., Gerstenmayer M., Lux F., Mériaux S., Tillement O., Forge V., Larrat B., Marquette C.
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have great potential in biomedical and clinical applications because of their many unique properties. This contribution provides an overview of the MNPs mainly used in the field of amyloid diseases. The first part discusses their use in understanding the amyloid mechanisms of fibrillation, with emphasis on their ability to control aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins. The second part deals with the functionalization by various moieties of numerous MNPs' surfaces (molecules, peptides, antibody fragments, or whole antibodies of MNPs) for the detection and the quantification of amyloid aggregates. The last part of this review focuses on the use of MNPs for magnetic-resonance-based amyloid imaging in biomedical fields, with particular attention to the application of gadolinium-based paramagnetic nanoparticles (AGuIX), which have been recently developed. Biocompatible AGuIX nanoparticles show favorable characteristics for in vivo use, such as nanometric and straightforward functionalization. Their properties have enabled their application in MRI. Here, we report that AGuIX nanoparticles grafted with the Pittsburgh compound B can actively target amyloid aggregates in the brain, beyond the blood⁻brain barrier, and remain the first step in observing amyloid plaques in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.