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Optogenetics field of optogenetics has provided new insight into neuronal communication and complex brain function. Now, scientists eagerly anticipate clinical application of this technology, with the hope that it will help improve treatments for various neurological disorders. However, the translational hurdles are high. In this Perspective, we highlight the technical, practical, and regulatory hurdles that lie ahead along the path towards making optogenetic neuromodulation therapies a reality in the clinic.

Original publication




Journal article


Science translational medicine

Publication Date





Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA.


Humans, Neurotransmitter Agents, Optogenetics, Translational Research, Biomedical