Spectral Topography of the Subthalamic Nucleus to Inform Next-Generation Deep Brain Stimulation.
Averna A., Debove I., Nowacki A., Peterman K., Duchet B., Sousa M., Bernasconi E., Alva L., Lachenmayer ML., Schuepbach M., Pollo C., Krack P., Nguyen T-AK., Tinkhauser G.
BACKGROUND: The landscape of neurophysiological symptoms and behavioral biomarkers in basal ganglia signals for movement disorders is expanding. The clinical translation of sensing-based deep brain stimulation (DBS) also requires a thorough understanding of the anatomical organization of spectral biomarkers within the subthalamic nucleus (STN). OBJECTIVES: The aims were to systematically investigate the spectral topography, including a wide range of sub-bands in STN local field potentials (LFP) of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, and to evaluate its predictive performance for clinical response to DBS. METHODS: STN-LFPs were recorded from 70 PD patients (130 hemispheres) awake and at rest using multicontact DBS electrodes. A comprehensive spatial characterization, including hot spot localization and focality estimation, was performed for multiple sub-bands (delta, theta, alpha, low-beta, high-beta, low-gamma, high-gamma, and fast-gamma (FG) as well as low- and fast high-frequency oscillations [HFO]) and compared to the clinical hot spot for rigidity response to DBS. A spectral biomarker map was established and used to predict the clinical response to DBS. RESULTS: The STN shows a heterogeneous topographic distribution of different spectral biomarkers, with the strongest segregation in the inferior-superior axis. Relative to the superiorly localized beta hot spot, HFOs (FG, slow HFO) were localized up to 2 mm more inferiorly. Beta oscillations are spatially more spread compared to other sub-bands. Both the spatial proximity of contacts to the beta hot spot and the distance to higher-frequency hot spots were predictive for the best rigidity response to DBS. CONCLUSIONS: The spatial segregation and properties of spectral biomarkers within the DBS target structure can additionally be informative for the implementation of next-generation sensing-based DBS. © 2023 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.