A Comprehensive Cancer-Associated MicroRNA Expression Profiling and Proteomic Analysis of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes
Jothimani G., Pathak S., Dutta S., Duttaroy AK., Banerjee A.
Abstract Background: The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have enormous therapeutic potential owing to their multi-lineage differentiation and self-renewal properties. MSCs express growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and non-coding regulatory RNAs with immunosuppressive, anti-tumor, and migratory properties. MSCs also release several anti-cancer molecules via extracellular vesicles, that act as pro-apoptotic/tumor suppressor factors. This study aimed to identify the stem cell-derived secretome that could exhibit anti-cancer properties through molecular profiling of cargos in MSC-derived exosomes. Methods: Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) were isolated from umbilical cord tissues and culture expanded. Subsequently, exosomes were isolated from hUCMSC conditioned medium and characterized by DLS, electron microscopy. Western blot for exosome surface marker protein CD63 expression was performed. The miRNA profiling of hUCMSCs and hUCMSC-derived exosomes was performed, followed by functional enrichment analysis. Results: The tri-lineage differentiation potential, fibroblastic morphology, and strong expression of pluripotency genes indicated that isolated fibroblasts are MSCs. The isolated extracellular vesicles were 133.8 ± 42.49 nm in diameter, monodispersed, and strongly expressed the exosome surface marker protein CD63. The miRNA expression profile and gene ontology (GO) depicted the differential expression patterns of high and less-expressed miRNAs that are crucial to be involved in the regulation of apoptosis. The LCMS/MS data and GO analysis indicate that hUCMSC secretomes are involved in several oncogenic and inflammatory signaling cascades. Conclusion: Primary human MSCs released miRNAs and growth factors via exosomes that are increasingly implicated in intercellular communications, and hUCMSC-exosomal miRNAs have a critical influence in regulating cell death and apoptosis of cancer cells. Graphical abstract