International Delphi Consensus on the Management of AQP4-IgG+ NMOSD: Recommendations for Eculizumab, Inebilizumab, and Satralizumab.
Paul F., Marignier R., Palace J., Arrambide G., Asgari N., Bennett JL., Cree BAC., De Sèze J., Fujihara K., Kim HJ., Hornby R., Huda S., Kissani N., Kleiter I., Kuwabara S., Lana-Peixoto M., Law L., Leite MI., Pandit L., Pittock SJ., Quan C., Ramanathan S., Rotstein D., Saiz A., Sato DK., Vaknin-Dembinsky A.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a rare debilitating autoimmune disease of the CNS. Three monoclonal antibodies were recently approved as maintenance therapies for aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4-IgG)-seropositive NMOSD (eculizumab, inebilizumab, and satralizumab), prompting the need to consider best practice therapeutic decision-making for this indication. Our objective was to develop validated statements for the management of AQP4-IgG-seropositive NMOSD, through an evidence-based Delphi consensus process, with a focus on recommendations for eculizumab, inebilizumab, and satralizumab. METHODS: We recruited an international panel of clinical experts in NMOSD and asked them to complete a questionnaire on NMOSD management. Panel members received a summary of evidence identified through a targeted literature review and provided free-text responses to the questionnaire based on both the data provided and their clinical experience. Responses were used to generate draft statements on NMOSD-related themes. Statements were voted on over a maximum of 3 rounds; participation in at least 1 of the first 2 rounds was mandatory. Panel members anonymously provided their level of agreement (6-point Likert scale) on each statement. Statements that failed to reach a predefined consensus threshold (≥67%) were revised based on feedback and then voted on in the next round. Final statements were those that met the consensus threshold (≥67%). RESULTS: The Delphi panel comprised 24 experts, who completed the Delphi process in November 2021 after 2 voting rounds. In round 1, 23/25 statements reached consensus and were accepted as final. The 2 statements that failed to reach consensus were revised. In round 2, both revised statements reached consensus. Twenty-five statements were agreed in total: 11 on initiation of or switching between eculizumab, inebilizumab, and satralizumab; 3 on monotherapy/combination therapy; 7 on safety and patient population considerations; 3 on biomarkers/patient-reported outcomes; and 1 on research gaps. DISCUSSION: An established consensus method was used to develop statements relevant to the management of AQP4-IgG-seropositive NMOSD. These international statements will be valuable for informing individualized therapeutic decision-making and could form the basis for standardized practice guidelines.