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IMPORTANCE: The coexistence of underlying causes in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor ischemic stroke as well as their associated 5-year risks are not well known. OBJECTIVE: To apply the ASCOD (atherosclerosis, small vessel disease, cardiac pathology, other cause, or dissection) grading system to assess coexistence of underlying causes of TIA and minor ischemic stroke and the 5-year risk for major vascular events. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This international registry cohort ( study enrolled 4789 patients from June 1, 2009, to December 31, 2011, with 1- to 5-year follow-up at 61 sites in 21 countries. Eligible patients had a TIA or minor stroke (with modified Rankin Scale score of 0 or 1) within the last 7 days. Among these, 3847 patients completed the 5-year follow-up by December 31, 2016. Data were analyzed from October 1, 2022, to June 15, 2023. EXPOSURE: Five-year follow-up. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Estimated 5-year risk of the composite outcome of stroke, acute coronary syndrome, or cardiovascular death. RESULTS: A total of 3847 patients (mean [SD] age, 66.4 [13.2] years; 2295 men [59.7%]) in 42 sites were enrolled and participated in the 5-year follow-up cohort (median percentage of 5-year follow-up per center was 92.3% [IQR, 83.4%-97.8%]). In 998 patients with probable or possible causal atherosclerotic disease, 489 (49.0%) had some form of small vessel disease (SVD), including 110 (11.0%) in whom a lacunar stroke was also probably or possibly causal, and 504 (50.5%) had no SVD; 275 (27.6%) had some cardiac findings, including 225 (22.6%) in whom cardiac pathology was also probably or possibly causal, and 702 (70.3%) had no cardiac findings. Compared with patients with none of the 5 ASCOD categories of disease (n = 484), the 5-year rate of major vascular events was almost 5 times higher (hazard ratio [HR], 4.86 [95% CI, 3.07-7.72]; P 

Original publication




Journal article


JAMA Neurol

Publication Date





1199 - 1208


Male, Humans, Aged, Ischemic Attack, Transient, Ischemic Stroke, Cohort Studies, Stroke, Lacunar, Stroke, Risk Factors, Atherosclerosis