Ultrasensitive assay technology and fluid biomarkers for the evaluation of peripheral nerve disease.
Bellanti R., Keddie S., Lunn MP., Rinaldi S.
The field of biomarker discovery is rapidly expanding. The introduction of ultrasensitive immunoassays and the growing precision of genetic technologies are poised to revolutionise the assessment and monitoring of many diseases. Given the difficulties in imaging and tissue diagnosis, there is mounting interest in serum and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of peripheral neuropathy. Realised and potential fluid biomarkers of peripheral nerve disease include neuronal biomarkers of axonal degeneration, glial biomarkers for peripheral demyelinating disorders, immunopathogenic biomarkers (such as the presence and titre of antibodies or the levels of cytokines) and genetic biomarkers. Several are already starting to inform clinical practice, whereas others remain under evaluation as potential indicators of disease activity and treatment response. As more biomarkers become available for clinical use, it has become increasingly difficult for clinicians and researchers to keep up-to-date with the most recent discovery and interpretation. In this review, we aim to inform practising neurologists, neuroscientists and other clinicians about recent advances in fluid biomarker technology, with a focus on single molecule arrays (Simoa), chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays (CLEIA), electrochemiluminescence (ECL), proximity extension assays (PEA), and microfluidic technology. We discuss established and emerging fluid biomarkers of peripheral neuropathy, their clinical applications, limitations and potential future developments.