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BACKGROUND: Neurological immune-related adverse events (nirAEs) are rare toxicities of immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). With the increase use of ICIs, incidence of nirAEs is growing, among which ICI related MG (irMG) is causing high fatality rate. Given the limited evidence, data from a large cohort of patients with irMG is needed to aid in recognition and management of this fatal complication. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to summarize clinical characteristics of irMG and explore predictors of irMG clinical outcome. METHODS: We summarized our institution's patients who were diagnosed as irMG between Sep 2019 and Oct 2021. We systematically reviewed the literature through Oct 2021 to identify all similar reported patients who met inclusion criteria. As the control group, patients with idiopathic MG were used. We collected data on clinical features, management, and outcomes of both irMG and idioMG cases. Further statistical analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Sixty three irMG patients and 380 idioMG patients were included in the final analysis. For irMG patients, six were from our institution while the rest 57 were from reported cases. The average age of irMG patients is 70.16 years old. Forty three were male. Average time from first ICI injection to symptom onset was 5.500 weeks. Eleven patients had a past history of MG. Higher MGFA classification and higher QMGS rates were observed in irMG patients compared to idioMG patients. For complication, more irMG patients had myositis or myocarditis overlapping compared to idioMG patients. The most commonly used treatment was corticosteroids for both idioMG and irMG. Twenty one patients (35%) with irMG had unfavorable disease outcome. Single variate and multivariate binary logistic regression proved that association with myocarditis, high MGFA classification or QMGS rates at first visit were negatively related to disease outcome in irMG patients. CONCLUSION: irMG is a life-threatening adverse event. irMG has unique clinical manifestations and clinical outcome compared to idioMG. When suspicious, early evaluation of MGFA classification, QMGS rates and myositis/myocarditis evaluation are recommended.

Original publication




Journal article


Front Neurol

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MGFA, QMG, immune checkpoint inhibitors, immune-related adverse effects, myasthenia gravis