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OBJECTIVE: The Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS) is a screening tool to assess stroke patients for deficits in attention, executive functions, language, praxis, numeric cognition, and memory. In this study, the OCS was culturally and linguistically adapted to Tamil, for use in India (OCS TA), considering the differences between formal and spoken versions of Tamil and consideration of its phonetic complexity. METHOD: We adopted two-parallel form versions of the OCS and generated normative data for them. We recruited 181 healthy controls (Mean = 39.27 years, SD 16.52) (141 completed version A, 40 completed version B, 33 completed version A and B) and compared the data with the original UK normative sample. In addition, 28 native Tamil-speaking patients who had a stroke in the past three years (Mean = 62.76 years, SD 9.14) were assessed. Convergent validity was assessed with subtasks from Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III (ACE-III). RESULTS: We found significant differences between the UK normative group and the OCS TA normative group in age and education. Tamil-specific norms were used to adapt the cutoffs for the memory, gesture imitation, and executive function tasks. When domain-specific scores on the ACE-III were compared, OCS TA exhibited strong convergent validity. CONCLUSIONS: The OCS TA has shown the potential to be a useful screening tool for stroke survivors among Tamil speakers with the two-parallel forms demonstrating good equivalence. Further empirical evidence from larger studies is required to establish their psychometric performance and clinical validity.

Original publication




Journal article


J Int Neuropsychol Soc

Publication Date





964 - 971


Oxford Cognitive Screen, Tamil, Tamil cognitive screening, cognitive test adaptation, cognitive test translation, stroke cognition, Humans, India, Reproducibility of Results, Language, Cognition, Linguistics, Stroke, Neuropsychological Tests, Cognitive Dysfunction