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BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a highly efficient, evidence-based therapy to alleviate symptoms and improve quality of life in movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia, which is also being applied in several psychiatric disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder and depression, when they are otherwise resistant to therapy. SUMMARY: At present, DBS is clinically applied in the so-called open-loop approach, with fixed stimulation parameters, irrespective of the patients' clinical state(s). This approach ignores the brain states or feedback from the central nervous system or peripheral recordings, thus potentially limiting its efficacy and inducing side effects by stimulation of the targeted networks below or above the therapeutic level. KEY MESSAGES: The currently emerging closed-loop (CL) approaches are designed to adapt stimulation parameters to the electrophysiological surrogates of disease symptoms and states. CL-DBS paves the way for adaptive personalized DBS protocols. This review elaborates on the perspectives of the CL technology and discusses its opportunities as well as its potential pitfalls for both clinical and research use in neuropsychiatric disorders.

Original publication




Journal article


Stereotact Funct Neurosurg

Publication Date



1 - 15


Closed loop, Deep brain stimulation, Electrophysiology, Neuroimaging