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BACKGROUND: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the cerebellum has a poor short-term prognosis, whereas data on the long-term case fatality and recurrent vascular events are sparse. Herewith, we aimed to assess the long-term case fatality and recurrence rate of vascular events after a first cerebellar ICH. METHODS: In this international cohort study, we included patients from 10 hospitals (the United States and Europe from 1997 to 2017) aged ≥18 years with a first spontaneous cerebellar ICH who were discharged alive. Data on long-term case fatality and recurrence of vascular events (recurrent ICH [supratentoria or infratentorial], ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, or major vascular surgery) were collected for survival analysis and absolute event rate calculation. RESULTS: We included 405 patients with cerebellar ICH (mean age [SD], 72 [13] years, 49% female). The median survival time was 67 months (interquartile range, 23-100 months), with a cumulative survival rate of 34% at 10-year follow-up (median follow-up time per center ranged: 15-80 months). In the 347 patients with data on vascular events 92 events occurred in 78 patients, after initial cerebellar ICH: 31 (8.9%) patients had a recurrent ICH (absolute event rate, 1.8 per 100 patient-years [95% CI, 1.2-2.6]), 39 (11%) had an ischemic stroke (absolute event rate, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.6-3.2]), 13 (3.7%) had a myocardial infarction (absolute event rate, 0.8 [95% CI, 0.4-1.3]), and 5 (1.4%) underwent major vascular surgery (absolute event rate, 0.3 [95% CI, 0.1-0.7]). The median time to a first vascular event during follow-up was 27 months (interquartile range, 8.7-50 months), with a cumulative hazard of 47% at 10 years. CONCLUSIONS: The long-term prognosis of patients who survive a first spontaneous cerebellar ICH is poor and comparable to that of patients who survive a first supratentorial ICH. Further identification of patients at high risk of vascular events following the initial cerebellar ICH is needed. Including patients with cerebellar ICH in randomized controlled trials on secondary prevention of patients with ICH is warranted.

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cerebellum, cohort studies, hemorrhagic stroke, recurrence, stroke, survival