"Cone dystrophy with supernormal rod electroretinogram": a comprehensive genotype/phenotype study including fundus autofluorescence and extensive electrophysiology.
Robson AG., Webster AR., Michaelides M., Downes SM., Cowing JA., Hunt DM., Moore AT., Holder GE.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to characterize the clinical, electrophysiologic, and genetic features in "cone dystrophy with supernormal rod electroretinogram (ERG)." METHODS: Twenty-four cases between 5 and 59 years of age were ascertained. Full-field ERGs, incorporating the international standards, were used to derive intensity-ERG response functions. ON-OFF ERGs were performed. Fundus autofluorescence imaging was performed on 15 subjects. Deoxyribonucleic acid was available in 18 cases and was screened for a mutation in KCNV2. RESULTS: Photophobia and nyctalopia were common. Autofluorescence was variable but often showed a ring-like area of high density that in middle-aged individuals, usually surrounded by an area of macular retinal pigment epithelial atrophy. Scotopic ERG amplitudes overlapped with the normal range but had characteristic a- and b-wave intensity-response functions; all had a broadened a-wave to the brightest flash. Photopic ERGs were abnormal; there was a delay in some ON and most OFF responses. Mutations in KCNV2 were detected in 18 cases, including 4 with novel mutations. CONCLUSION: Individuals with mutations in KCNV2 manifest a wide range of macular and autofluorescence abnormalities. A ring-like area of parafoveal high density autofluorescence is common. ERG amplitudes are variable, but the intensity-ERG response functions and bright flash ERG waveforms are pathognomonic.