Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Early differentiation between acute ischaemic (AIS) and haemorrhagic stroke (ICH), based on cerebral and peripheral hemodynamic parameters, would be advantageous to allow for pre-hospital interventions. In this preliminary study, we explored the potential of multiple parameters, including dynamic cerebral autoregulation, for phenotyping and differentiating each stroke sub-type. METHODS: Eighty patients were included with clinical stroke syndromes confirmed by computed tomography within 48 h of symptom onset. Continuous recordings of bilateral cerebral blood velocity (transcranial Doppler ultrasound), end-tidal CO2 (capnography), electrocardiogram (ECG), and arterial blood pressure (ABP, Finometer) were used to derive 67 cerebral and peripheral parameters. RESULTS: A total of 68 patients with AIS (mean age 66.8 ± SD 12.4 years) and 12 patients with ICH (67.8 ± 16.2 years) were included. The median ± SD NIHSS of the cohort was 5 ± 4.6. Statistically significant differences between AIS and ICH were observed for (i) an autoregulation index (ARI) that was higher in the unaffected hemisphere (UH) for ICH compared to AIS (5.9 ± 1.7 vs. 4.9 ± 1.8 p = 0.07); (ii) coherence function for both hemispheres in different frequency bands (AH, p < 0.01; UH p < 0.02); (iii) a baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS) for the low-frequency (LF) bands that was higher for AIS (6.7 ± 4.2 vs. 4.10 ± 2.13 ms/mmHg, p = 0.04) compared to ICH, and that the mean gain of the BRS in the LF range was higher in the AIS than in the ICH (5.8 ± 5.3 vs. 2.7 ± 1.8 ms/mmHg, p = 0.0005); (iv) Systolic and diastolic velocities of the affected hemisphere (AH) that were significantly higher in ICH than in AIS (82.5 ± 28.09 vs. 61.9 ± 18.9 cm/s), systolic velocity (p = 0.002), and diastolic velocity (p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: Further multivariate modelling might improve the ability of multiple parameters to discriminate between AIS and ICH and warrants future prospective studies of ultra-early classification (<4 h post symptom onset) of stroke sub-types.

Original publication




Journal article


Healthcare (Basel)

Publication Date





baroreflex sensitivity, blood-flow velocity, cerebral autoregulation, stroke, transcranial doppler sonography