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BACKGROUND: Preliminary data suggests that obesity might hasten the decline in mRNA vaccine-induced immunity against SARS-CoV-2. However, whether this renders individuals with obesity more susceptible to long COVID symptoms post-vaccination remains uncertain. Given sleep's critical role in immunity, exploring the associations between obesity, probable long COVID symptoms, and sleep disturbances is essential. METHODS: We analyzed data from a survey of 5919 adults aged 18 to 89, all of whom received two SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccinations. Participants were categorized into normal weight, overweight, and obesity groups based on ethnicity-specific BMI cutoffs. The probability of long COVID was evaluated using the Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC) score, as our survey did not permit confirmation of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection through methods such as antibody testing. Additionally, sleep patterns were assessed through questionnaires. RESULTS: Participants with obesity exhibited a significantly higher adjusted odds ratio (OR) of having a PASC score of 12 or higher, indicative of probable long COVID in our study, compared to those with normal weight (OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.28). No significant difference was observed for overweight individuals (OR: 0.92 [95% CI: 0.63, 1.33]). Both obesity and probable long COVID were associated with increased odds of experiencing a heightened sleep burden, such as the presence of obstructive sleep apnea or insomnia (P 

Original publication




Journal article


Int J Obes (Lond)

Publication Date