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The ELECTRA-STROKE study investigated the potential of EEG for prehospital triage of patients with ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion (LVO), in which fast triage to stroke centers for endovascular treatment is crucial. The study was conducted in 4 phases, and this Journal Club article focuses on the fourth phase in the prehospital setting with suspected stroke patients. An EEG cap with dry electrodes was used to measure brain activity. The main focus was on the diagnostic accuracy of the theta/alpha ratio, which yielded an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.80. Secondary endpoints, particularly the Brain Symmetry Index (a quantified EEG interhemispheric cortical power asymmetry index) in the delta frequency band, showed an AUC of 0.91. Despite the convenient study design and user-friendly EEG device, limitations include a single-arm design, a relatively small sample size, and exclusions due to data quality issues. The usefulness of EEG in the detection of neuronal changes based on brain ischemia was highlighted, but uncertainties remain regarding its use in certain patient groups. The improvements in the Brain Symmetry Index from phase 3 to 4 of the study indicate the potential for further refinement and investigation of combined methods to improve diagnostic accuracy. The study provides insight into the role of EEG in prehospital stroke detection, recognizing both the strengths and limitations. Overall, the study contributes to understanding the promise of EEG in optimizing LVO stroke triage and urges further refinement and exploration of complementary diagnostic approaches.

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Humans, Electroencephalography, Emergency Medical Services, Stroke, Ischemic Stroke, Male, Triage, Female, Aged, Brain Ischemia