Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Therapy-induced binding and neutralizing antibodies is a major problem in interferon (IFN)-beta treatment of multiple sclerosis. The objective of this study was to provide guidelines outlining the methods and clinical use of the measurements of binding and neutralizing antibodies. Systematic search of the Medline database for available publications on binding and neutralizing antibodies was undertaken. Appropriate publications were reviewed by one or more of the task force members. Grading of evidence and recommendations was based on consensus by all task force members. Measurements of binding antibodies are recommended for IFN-beta antibody screening before performing a neutralizing antibody (NAB) assay (Level A recommendation). Measurement of NABs should be performed in specialized laboratories with a validated cytopathic effect assay or MxA production assay using serial dilution of the test sera. The NAB titre should be calculated using the Kawade formula (Level A recommendation). Tests for the presence of NABs should be performed in all patients at 12 and 24 months of therapy (Level A recommendation). In patients who remain NAB-negative during this period measurements of NABs can be discontinued (Level B recommendation). In patient with NABs, measurements should be repeated, and therapy with IFN-beta should be discontinued in patients with high titres of NABs sustained at repeated measurements with 3- to 6-month intervals (Level A recommendation).

Original publication




Journal article


Eur J Neurol

Publication Date





817 - 827


Antibodies, Disease Progression, Humans, Immunoassay, Interferon-beta, Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting