Modafinil for the Treatment of Fatigue in Lung Cancer: Results of a Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Randomized Trial
Spathis A., Fife K., Blackhall F., Dutton S., Bahadori R., Wharton R., O'Brien M., Stone P., Benepal T., Bates N., Wee B.
Purpose Fatigue is a distressing symptom occurring in more than 60% of patients with cancer. The CNS stimulants modafinil and methylphenidate are recommended for the treatment of cancer-related fatigue, despite a limited evidence base. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of modafinil in the management of fatigue in patients with non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods Adults with advanced NSCLC and performance status of 0 to 2, who were not treated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy within the last 4 weeks, were randomly assigned to daily modafinil (100 mg on days 1 to 14; 200 mg on days 15 to 28) or matched placebo. The primary outcome was change in Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT) –Fatigue score from baseline to 28 days, adjusted for baseline fatigue and performance status. Secondary outcomes included safety and patient-reported measures of depression, daytime sleepiness, and quality of life. Results A total of 208 patients were randomly assigned, and 160 patients (modafinil, n = 75; placebo, n = 85) completed questionnaires at both baseline and day 28 and were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. FACIT-Fatigue scores improved from baseline to day 28 (mean score change: modafinil, 5.29; 95% CI, 2.57 to 8.02; placebo, 5.09; 95% CI, 2.54 to 7.65), but there was no difference between treatments (0.20; 95% CI, −3.56 to 3.97). There was also no difference between treatments for the secondary outcomes; 47% of the modafinil group and 23% of the placebo group stated that the intervention was not helpful. Conclusion Modafinil had no effect on cancer-related fatigue and should not be prescribed outside a clinical trial setting. Its use was associated with a clinically significant placebo effect.