Gender effect on neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder with aquaporin4-immunoglobulin G.
Kim SM., Waters P., Woodhall M., Kim YJ., Kim JA., Cheon SY., Lee S., Jo SR., Kim DG., Jung KC., Lee KW., Sung JJ., Park KS.
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder with aquaporin4-immunoglobulin G (NMOSD-AQP4) is an inflammatory disease characterised by a high female predominance. However, the effect of gender in patients with NMOSD-AQP4 has not been fully evaluated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of gender in clinical manifestations and prognosis of patients with NMOSD-AQP4. METHODS: The demographics, clinical and radiological characteristics, pattern reversal visual evoked potential (VEP) test results, and prognosis of 102 patients (18 males) with NMOSD-AQP4 were assessed. RESULTS: Male patients had a higher age at onset (48.7 vs 41 years, p = 0.037) and less optic neuritis as the onset attack (17% vs 44%, p = 0.026), higher tendency to manifest as isolated myelitis over the follow-up period (67% vs 28%, p = 0.005), fewer optic neuritis attacks per year (0.08 vs 0.27, p < 0.001), and shorter relative P100 latency on VEP testing (97.1% vs 108.3%, p = 0.001). Moreover, male gender was significantly associated with the absence of optic neuritis attacks over the follow-up period independent of their age of onset. CONCLUSION: In NMOSD-AQP4 patients, gender impacts on disease onset age and site of attack. This may be an important clue in identifying NMOSD-AQP4 patients with limited manifestations as well as in predicting their clinical courses.