Crystal structure of human wildtype and S581L-mutant glycyl-tRNA synthetase, an enzyme underlying distal spinal muscular atrophy.
Cader MZ., Ren J., James PA., Bird LE., Talbot K., Stammers DK.
Dominant mutations in the ubiquitous enzyme glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS), including S581L, lead to motor nerve degeneration. We have determined crystal structures of wildtype and S581L-mutant human GlyRS. The S581L mutation is approximately 50A from the active site, and yet gives reduced aminoacylation activity. The overall structures of wildtype and S581L-GlyRS, including the active site, are very similar. However, residues 567-575 of the anticodon-binding domain shift position and in turn could indirectly affect glycine binding via the tRNA or alternatively inhibit conformational changes. Reduced enzyme activity may underlie neuronal degeneration, although a dominant-negative effect is more likely in this autosomal dominant disorder.