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© 2019 The Author Diabetic retinopathy is a key cause of blindness in the working-age population. Despite the available treatments, some patients present late in the course of the disease when treatment is more difficult. If diabetic retinopathy is detected, tightening of modifiable risk factors (e.g. blood glucose, blood pressure) can slow disease progression. When sight-threatening retinopathy is detected, laser treatment and treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors reduces the risk of visual loss. When a stage of advanced retinopathy is detected, vitrectomy operations with modern surgical techniques provide improving results for patients. Advances in optical coherence tomography technology have seen the development of high-definition three-dimensional imaging of the retina and of non-invasive, dye-free angiography, which has enhanced the understanding of and diagnostic capabilities within the field of diabetic retinopathy management.

Original publication




Journal article


Medicine (United Kingdom)

Publication Date





77 - 85